a teenager back in the early and mid 1970s, I desperately wanted
a radio controlled airplane. Neither my meager earnings from a poorly
run newspaper delivery business, nor my father's salary as the classified
advertising department manager at the
newspaper (Annapolis, MD) would allow for the purchase
of even a single-channel system. So, I had to be content (which
I never was) with less expensive indulgences in free flight and
control line model airplanes. During the era, the Ace Pulse Commander
single-channel radio system was being advertised regularly in all
of the model airplane magazines like American Aircraft Modeler,
Flying Models, etc. It was the object of my desire.
went on and I eventually got an after-school job at an auto body
shop run by Genderson Chevrolet (now
in Annapolis, MD. That allowed for a larger, but still modest, aeromodeling
budget. Rather ten settle for a single-channel system, I ended up
buying a used
OS Digital 3-channel radio system
from a man down the street
who was very much into radio control modeling. A couple years ago,
I saw one of my once-coveted Ace Pulse Commander radio control systems
up for bid on e-Bay, and won the auction for it. Detailed photos
of transmitter, receiver, and actuator are shown below. At the bottom
of the page is the complete contents of the Owner's Manual.
Inside of Transmitter
Receiver Component Side
Receiver PCB Solder Side
This electronically scanned copy of the Ace Pulse
Owner's Manual is provided for historical purposes
All copyrights are acknowledged.
- 1 -
PULSE CAPITAL OF THE WORLD
BOX 511 116W. 19TH ST
HIGGINSVILLE, MO. 64037
You have purchased a precision package of Radio Control gear. The
Commander pulse proportional is a comp1ete system that can provide
you the most fun per dollar of any of the systems available of today.
We urge you to read the instructions thoroughly and carefully
before you attempt to do anything. Identify each part of the system,
and from the instructions learn what its function is. Then hook
up your system on the bench and test it to familiarize yourself
with the "wagging" operation of the actuator--this is the secret
of the simplicity of pulse proportional.
Then install in
a plane which is suitable for pulse and learn to fly, following
the instructions included in the manual.
After you become
a skilled R-O pilot, you may want to investigate the expandability
the Commander package offers you. You can expand in several directions:
go to larger actuators, smaller batteries or larger batteries, etc.
The versatility is limited only by your imagination and your requirements.
You can add motor control later quite simply with the KRD
motor control servo and a factory conversion to pushbutton fast
pulse to your transmitter.
- 2 -
AND CONCEPT OF PULSE PROPORTIONAL
There is no doubt about
it--this is the day of proportional control. It is a dream come
true. Since the early days of remotely controlling a model of a
flying machine, modellers have wanted to do it as nearly like the
real thing as possible.
For many years, however, this was
not to be the case. I n its initial stages, model flying was bang-bang
stuff. You pushed the button, and the control surface went all the
way over and the plane responded all the way. This was true whether
it was single channel escapement or multi channel flying with reeds.
Flyers who learned to lean on the control push buttons just
a bit, then off; then a bit more, then off; then a bit more--in
effect were getting proportions of what was built into the system,
and they were flying more realistically.
a system which gave the aircraft just the degree of surface response
that the modeller called for by moving the stick in the direction
that !le wanted that control--was attempted in a varie1Y of ways
and with some success. First was early pulse proportional. It won
many contests, even some Nats. It had quite a following, particularly
among the tinkerers. This was true because you had to take an existing
transmitter and modify it by adding a pulser to it. The pulser in
the early days consisted of a motor driven switching device which
turned the transmitter on and off, and varied the signal of the
transmitter as you move the stick. This was a hold over from the
systems used in early World War II missiles. Then came electronic
pulsers. These used relays to turn the transmitter on and off. This
was followed by more sophisticated circuitry which used electronic
switching. Always, however, it was a proposition of having to adapt
a so called "single channel" transmitter to become a pulse proportional
transmitter by adding a pulser. This was a big obstacle, and to
many it remained a hurdle, because there was no real assurance of
satisfactory operation without a lot of tinkering.
receiving end the receiver generally had a relay, and this was coupled
to actuators of varying descriptions, some of them magnetic and
some of them motor driven. In many cases two sets of batteries had
to be used. Eventually electronic switchers such as the Ace AOSK
and others of this kind appeared. With the refinement of receiver
circuitry, it became possible to operate with less batteries and
do away with the always critical adjustment that the receiver relay
required to follow and track the pulsing of the transmitter--provided
that it was pulsing regularly and evenly!
presented a problem, because until just a few years ago, most of
these had to be homebrewed. Some of the commercial ones had several
things against them--they were either too heavy, or if I light enough,
lacked power. It wasn't until Dick Adams invented and patented the
Adams Dual Coil Actuator that the full potential of true rudder
only pulse proportional control began to move forward.
remained, however, the haphazard approach in both the transmitter
and the receiver, because of the required "add-ons" in order to
achieve the sometimes proportional rudder only control.
wasn't until the Commander series of rudder only pulse units were
introduced that we finally came to a wholly integrated and compatible
system. The transmitter was designed as a pulse transmitter, and
the receiver was designed as a pulse receiver and they were made
to work together with the Adams actuator. While it took a while
to have the concept catch on, it is this complete match up of the
rudder only pulse system in the Commander that has brought rudder
only pulse to the forefront of complete and simple reliability.
It is no longer a hodge-podge of an assorted bit of add-ons,
it is no longer a series of complex and disheartening adjustments
that must continually be made to keep operational; it is no longer
a matter of having heavy and cumbersome airborne equipment. The
airborne flite pack weights range from 2.5 ounces and up--the lightest
weight package systems that are available for any aircraft installation--and
they use dependable and reliable nickel cadmium batteries so that
you know constantly where you are from a standpoint of having enough
battery life left for another flight or not. It offers the same
dependability of digital systems.
In pulse proportional
control, a tone is sent on and off constantly, fast enough so that
the actuating device in the plane is continuously moving from one
position to another. Your transmitter and receiver and actuating
devices are being constantly commanded by the tones you send.
- 3 -
Now let's look at what is happening. You are sending out tones
of equal length of ON to OFF. The rudder during this time, because
it is linked to the actuator, responds to the signal and it is alternately
going from left to right in direct response to the tones that the
pulser-transmitter puts out. As long as the ratio of the width remains
equal (50% ON to 50% OFF), you will have the rudder constantly going
from left to right equally. Your airplane will read this as a neutral
signal, because your airplane is "averaging" the rudder positions.
As long as they are equal you have, for flying purposes, a completely
neutral rudder, since the plane responds just 3S if there were no
movement of the rudder at all.
At this point it must be
mentioned that this is the pulse proportional secret--the tail wagging.
It must also be mentioned in the strongest of terms that this tail
wagging does not act as a "brake". It does not slow down the flight
of the airplane, and does not in any way affect the flight pattern,
provided it is happening at a fast enough rate of at least three
to four pulses per second. When it is happening at this rate there
is no time for the rudder to "catch" hold in the air stream.
The fact of rudder wagging may disturb some people, but it simply
does not bother the airplane and there is really no reason why it
should bother you. As a matter of fact, there are some flyers who
take comfort in the fact that the rudder is wagging, since they
know that the system is performing as it should.
see what happens to the signal when you begin to vary pulse width
from the 50/50 ratio by moving the control stick. I f the ON signal
pulse is longer than the 0 FF time, the actuator will go further
in the direction caused by the ON signal, before the circuit is
reversed with the OFF signal. This means that the rudder will begin
to dwell in the ON direction just a bit longer. This short bit longer
is enough in a properly trimmed airplane for the airplane to begin
to respond in a turn.
Now take the opposite condition, whereby
the OFF signal is longer than the ON, and you have the rudder moving
in the opposite direction, because the signal dwell ;s longer in
OFF. What is happening is that the stick connected to your pulser
pot can be moved in infinite steps which will vary this ON-to-OFF,
or OFF-to-ON ratio (or width). This gives you rudder position averages
which vary to the exact degree that the stick commands, and therefore
directly translate stick movement in recognizable left or right
in your plane. With a rudder only pulse system the variation is
from 50/50 for neutral to 90/10 or 10/90 for left and right.
Pulse Rudder-Only represents the simplest approach to radio
control. The simplest to install, simplest to maintain, simplest
All of this with economy and effectiveness along
with extremely light weight. It goes where heavier digital equipment
can not. It is a whole new ball game!
To make your transmitter operational
all that is required is to purchase and install a Eveready 276,
9 volt dry battery or equivalent. Make sure the transmitter is OFF
when installing the battery (the transmitter is on when the switch
slide is toward the top of the case). This battery will provide
enough power for 30-50 hours of flying time. If your battery is
getting low, the operational range will decrease and neutral will
shift, causing erratic operation. To be sure of battery condition
obtain a voltmeter and test the battery voltage with the transmitter
on. If the battery tests above 7.5 volts, it is okay.
the battery is installed, secure the back of the case using the
two No. 4 self tapping screws provided.
RUDDER NEUTRAL ADJUSTMENT
The only transmitter adjustment that might be required is the
recentering of neutral on the control stick. If you find it necessary
to do this, remove the back and loosen the screw which tightens
the control yoke on the pot shaft. With the system on, turn the
pot adjustment wheel until neutral is achieved when the stick and
trim tab are centered. Tighten the screw and replace the back.
- 4 -
Before operating the airborne unit,
it is necessary to charge the nickel cadmium batteries. The first
time you charge them, do so for at least 24 hours--12-16 hours is
sufficient for all subsequent charges. Always charge the batteries
after every session of flying. If it has been over a week since
you've flown, charge the batteries the night before you fly again.
To charge the batteries, first unplug the battery/switch
harness from the receiver. IMPORTANT: Notice that the two pin plugs
are colored on one side. When plugging them together, make sure
that the colors are the same and the color is on the same side.
This insures that the correct contacts are made; if they are reversed,
damage can occur. Now plug the charger into the battery/ switch
harness and then connect it to household current. MAKE SURE THE
SWITCH IS ON when charging; otherwise the batteries will receive
no current. The LED should glow when the batteries are receiving
Your Pulse Commander receiver is a superhet
circuit which allows you to fly at the same time as others if you
are on a different frequency. The frequency is indicated by the
color of the flag on the transmitter and the color of the antenna
wire and crystal in the receiver. Make sure nobody has a transmitter
on with the same frequency as yours before flying.
attempt to do any tuning on the receiver. It is factory tuned and
sealed. Without proper knowledge and equipment it is impossible
to tune properly.
Brown 26.995 mHz
Red 27.045 mHz
Yellow 27.145 mHz
Black & Brown 53.10 mHz
Orange 53.30 mHz
Black & Yellow 53.40
Black & Green 53.50 mHz
White & Brown 72.08 mHz*
Blue 72.16 mHz
White & Red
72.24 mHz *
White & Violet 72.32 mHz
White & Orange 72.40 mHz*
White & Yellow
White & Green 75.64 mHz*
The four frequencies
indicated by asterisks (*) in the
72 - 76 mHz band are
for model aircraft use only.
- 5 -
Your Pulse Commander airborne radio system is connector wired
in order to give maximum versatility. Since the receiver is quickly
removable from the airplane, it can be switched from plane to plane,
each one requiring only an actuator and a battery/switch harness.
Ace R/C has made available actuators and batteries which are wired
and ready to install. This allows you to have numerous different
styles and sizes of planes with a minimum of investment. Check with
you hobby dealer or order direct.
- 6 -
The radio installation
is a critical part in the construction of a small R/C airplane.
Because of the size and weight of a rudder-only pulse system, the
power which controls the rudder isn't excessive, but is more than
enough to fly the plane. However, not enough to compensate for errors
or carelessness in installation. Before installing your R/C equipment,
please read the following suggestions carefully so you have the
best chance of success.
If you have charged the nicads, installed
transmitter battery and antenna, you are ready to analyze the way
your rudder-only pulse system works. Turn on the receiver and transmitter.
See how the crank on the actuator wags back and forth? Don't worry!
This action is a must for the proper operation of the system. Now
as your actuator is wagging back and forth, move the control stick
on the transmitter slowly to the left. Notice that the crank on
the actuator dwells more and more to one side as you move the stick--when
you push the stick all the way over, the crank barely goes to the
other side. Moving the stick the opposite direction produces the
opposite result, right? Good. That's the whole principle of pulse
proportional radio operation. The installation will hook up the
rudder so it responds in exactly the same manner. It will wag back
and forth vigorously, banging equally from right to left until you
move the control stick. Then it will follow your command proportionally-the
more you move the stick, the more the rudder will stay to one side
or the other until it almost stops at full right or left when the
stick is all the way over in those positions.
You are probably
wondering how the plane can fly straight and make gentle turns with
its tail bumping like a Go Go dancer. Luckily, there's a difference
between airplanes and people; an airplane doesn't care whether its
tail is wagging or not. I f the rudder is wagging equally from right
to left all it knows how to do is fly straight. Because it has such
a big wing in relation to its little rudder, a bit of wagging doesn't
bother it at all. When the rudder starts to wag more to the right
than to the left, the plane has no choice but to start to turn to
the right--the more the rudder dwells to the right, the harder the
turn. This is what the pulse system does. It moves the rudder either
equally right to left or more to the right or left, depending on
how you, the pilot, move the control stick. So, what we will show
is how to hook the rudder up to the actuator so it does exactly
what it is supposed to do; and find a place in the airplane for
the other stuff such as the receiver, batteries, antenna, and switch.
The first and hardest part of the installation is hooking up
the actuator to the rudder. Since the actuator weighs too much it
can't be mounted at the tail of the plane where the rudder is, so
it has to be connected to the rudder by some form of linkage. Because
the actuator and rudder are constantly in motion, this linkage has
to be very free and efficient otherwise the power of the actuator
is lost. The most efficient method is by use of a torque rod to
connect the rudder and actuator. Let's look at the following illustrations:
The actuator is mounted on a 1/16" piece of plywood that is
the width and height of the fuselage where the actuator goes (About
in the middle of the compartment under the wing). It is fastened
to the mounting place by drilling appropriate holes and sewing with
"button and carpet" thread or copper wire--don't use steel wire
because this will disturb the magnetic field. To secure the actuator
mounting plate in the fuselage, rails are made from 1/8 or 1/4 or
3/16" square balsa pieces which are glued to the fuselage side to
act as slides or rails so that the plate can be slid in and out
for easy removal. Make this a snug fit between the balsa rails and
the plywood actuator plate.
- 7 -
The rudder is hinged at two points using heavy thread (button
and carpet preferred) sewn in a figure 8 manner and glued. Use glue
sparingly so you don't get it on the hinge portion--the rudder should
flap easily back and forth with no resistance.
nose pliers the front post of the torque rod is bent (out of .045
music wire) in the manner shown. It passes through two bearings:
the front bearing is made of 1/16" plywood with a slightly oversize
hole and a piece of nylon tubing is used at the rear. Make sure
the torque rod is a straight line from the center of the actuator
to the rear, touching nothing but the bearing points--no bind or
rub should occur anywhere. It ',,"ill be necessary in most instances
to drill a hole through the rudder post for the torque rod to slide
through. With the front plywood bearing loose, the torque rod can
be slid in before the rear bend is made. Then when you are absolutely
sure you have no binds, the rear bend is made straight up and down
when the actuator crank is in the "neutral" or half way between
its amount of travel. Then glue the ply bearing plate and make sure
it does not shift. Also make sure you get no glue on any bearing
A yoke is used to connect the rudder to the torque
rod. Paper clip wire or 1/32" music wire works well here. Bend in
the manner shown and use a small nut and bolt to fasten it to the
rudder; this allows it to be adjustable--move it up and you get
more rudder movement, down and you get less. There should be absolutely
no bind in the system when the actuator moves from right to left,
especially at the extremes. I n order to accomplish this, it is
necessary to have some slop in the linkage when it is in neutral--don't
worry! The plane doesn't care.
Where wire touches wire small heat shrink tubing is used to
prevent 'electrical noise--something that can really screw up your
receiver. Simply slip the tubing over the wire, position it where
you want, and apply heat. It will shrink up around the wire very
tightly and stay there. Heat can be applied with a soldering iron
or a match. If you use a match be careful not to burn the plane.
Before going any further, again turn on the system and check
the operation. The rudder should bang back and forth equally right
to left when the control stick is in neutral and follow your command
when you move the stick. It should do this with the plane in any
attitude: upside down, straight up, or its side, etc. If it doesn't,
you've got bind in the linkage so check your work carefully.
If the rudder still pulses unevenly while the plane is on its
side and you are sure there is no bind, a modification to the actuator
is recommended. Simply cut a piece of 3/32" plywood 1/4" wide, and
long enough to fit snugly against the coil between the plastic discs
of the actuator (see illustration). Carefully epoxy this stop to
the coil. This restricts the deflection or throw of the actuator,
since the torque effect is weakest at the extremes of the actuator
travel. The lost throw can be regained by moving the yoke at the
rudder upward slightly.
There might be a chance that the
rudder follows the command backwards--that is, when you command
right, the rudder moves to the left. If so, very carefully unsolder
and reverse the brown and blue leads on the outer lugs of the actuator.
Resolder carefully and securely. Do not use too much heat or you'll
melt the nylon header.
Now it is the time to put the rest
of the stuff in the plane. Shown is a typical installation for "Dick's
Dream"; same pattern should be followed for other small planes--fine
for large ones too.
Notice that the receiver is in front
of actuator and batteries are in front of receiver. Always maintain
this relationship when installing equipment; otherwise you are going
to have pulverized transistors if you have a hard landing or crash.
Also, ALWAYS WRAP THE RECEIVER AND THE BATTERIES (SEPARATELY) IN
A GOOD QUALITY OF LATEX FOAM RUBBER-¬to protect them from damage
and also dampen vibration from the engine. Receiver is completely
wrapped in foam so that it will stay in place but not under too
much pressure so that it does have room to absorb vibration. Make
sure it clears actuator enough so that under flying conditions it
can't shift rearward and jam actuator. Batteries are wrapped completely
in latex foam--the rest of the forward compartment is filled with
additional foam pieces. Make sure batteries can not shift around
in your final installation. When checking the balance of your model,
you can move batteries forward or backward so that you have the
proper balance point. NOTE: Unless you use latex rubber, the receiver
crystal is subject to damage and all warranties on the crystal are
Mount the switch in a convenient spot on the fuselage
side so it is not in anything's way. Cut a rectangular hole and
drill two holes in the proper spot - use .two 2-56 bolts and nuts
to secure the switch. (Switch guard is available).
- 9 -
The following suggestions on how to fly pulse rudder-only
planes are written in the hope that the reader will succeed in his
first attempts to fly radio control. Ability is gained only by doing
and practicing; reading these suggestions won't make anyone a pilot
before he flies, but they should help smooth out some of the hitches
in getting the first R/C plane in the air.
A level, firm launch is necessary for a successful flight.
1. Check the airplane:
- For Center of Gravity balance and alignment according to the
- For warps in flying surfaces.
center of gravity (CG), or balance point, is marked on your plane
plans and instructions. Using your forefingers try to balance the
plane by holding underneath the wing near the fuselage (NOT AT THE
TIPS). Lift the plane at the wing with the fingers at about the
point shown on the plans. (If mark is about one-third back from
the leading edge, put fingers at the point one-third back near the
fuselage) If the plane is small, you can manage this by yourself--for
larger jobs you'll need help.
If the nose dips, you need
to have some of the weight back and you can probably shift some
of the R/C gear or batteries further back. If the tail tip dips,
you are tail heavy and need to move some weight forward. Only as
a last resort, should you use lead or solder to help balance, since
this will add to your total weight. Your center of gravity (CG)
or balance point needs to be at the spot marked on the plans before
you attempt any glide.
-Make sure everything is up to snuff;
otherwise success can come hard! Look the plane over thoroughly
for cracks, breaks, loose nuts, binds in control linkages, and any
other weak points.
II. Check your radio:
- For proper
transmitter battery voltage (check the instructions--on most 9 volt
transmitter dry batteries, this should not drop below 7.5 volts-¬UNDER
LOAD; or with transmitter on and operating) .
- For adequate
ground range (usually 75 to 100 feet with the transmitter antenna
collapsed). This is with helper holding the plane at shoulder height
and you holding the transmitter.
- For proper response of
the rudder to transmitter command (left follows left, and right
III. Also make sure you have the following
- Tools: Screwdriver, pliers, Glo Plug clip,
wrenches, fuel pump or bulb, fast-drying cement, pins, etc.
- Clean wiping rags.
- Box to hold all of the foregoing
accessories.At the Flying Field
I. Test Glide the Plane
- Pick a calm
day (5 mph or less), turn the transmitter and receiver on and gently
launch the plane directly into the wind, aiming at a spot on the
ground of about 75 ft. in front of you. Check this diagram for what
to do. "0" is what to strive for.
- 10 -
A. Very nose heavy or check to see if you put on the wing!!
Add weight to tail.
B. Tail heavy or thrown too hard into wind
will also cause stall.
C. Slight tail heavy or add shim to
elevator panel--generally do not look for a float-glide.
D. GOOD straight fast glide--do all testing with neutral rudder
E. Fast but tricky may indicate wing warp unnoticed before.
F. Some degree of turn--Rudder neutral... Elevator not positioned
correctly, wing warp or vertical fin not 00 on fuselage--can be
trouble. II. Powered First Flights
- Before attempting this, again check the radio ground range.
- Start the engine and turn the radio transmitter and receiver
on, checking for proper rudder action.
- Gently launch the
plane directly into the wind, just as you did when gliding it.
- The plane should start a gentle climb straight out. Allow
it to get some altitude and gently turn to the right or left by
moving the transmitter stick a SLIGHT bit. Do NOT overcontrol!!!
This is a common beginner's mistake. Do control in small segments
while learning. After awhile you will learn to anticipate what the
plane is going to do, so that you can be ready to apply proper corrections.
Again, do this in gentle increments of control, never full right
or full left, until you have enough skill and confidence to handle
a close situation. Continue gentle turns and increase altitude to
200-250 ft. ALWAYS keep the plane UPWIND from you, so that if you
do make a wrong move, the wind will blow the plane back toward you.
If the plane gets downwind it can go farther and farther away. This
can result in a lost airplane.
- When the engine quits,
judge the glide descent and try to land the airplane close to you.
If you are close to the ground, DON'T turn sharply--it is better
to have to walk a little ways rather than to pick up the pieces
at your feet, because you tried to stretch a glide or turn too short.
(More on landings later.)
CHECK THE DIAGRAMS FOR PROBLEMS
AND SUGGESTED CURES. READ AND RE-READ. MAKE ANY ADJUSTMENTS JUST
A BIT AT A TIME--AND AS A RULE. MAKE ONLY ONE ADJUSTMENT AT A TIME.
IN THIS WAY YOU CAN SEE THE RESULTS OF WHAT YOU ARE DOING.
Another important thing to remember is that when the plane is
flying away from you, right movement of the stick will make the
plane move to the right. However, when the plane is flying toward
you, a right command will cause the plane to fly to your left. This
is something you must learn and keep firmly in mind. It can be very
confusing to a new flyer.
One way of handling this is that
when you are flying toward you, you can push the wing up into a
turn desired with your stick thumb. This is an easy method of remembering,
and will come clearer to you.
- 11 -
A. Good climb out - straight, steady with good speed into wind will
give the start of a satisfactory flight.
B. Good launch but is
a weed cutter!! Refuses to gain altitude ... increase angle between
wing and elevator with a shim under leading edge of elevator 1/32
- 1/16 until good climb is noted as in Fig. A, also check for excessive
down thrust. (Engine points down too much)
went fine until ... Check the radio gear with the recommended ground
check. In some cases the air speed is too slow and wing stalled
letting the engine torque take over--spinning plane to ground.
D. Persistent turn after launch to the left when surfaces
have been checked for warps and rudder is neutral; Indicates the
engine needs additional RIGHT thrust adjustments. Depending on the
plane/motor combination this could be 20 to 50 or 60, generally
20 is sufficient.
E. Right turn after launch could be too
much thrust adjustment, warps, rudder and neutral. Important thing
is that rudder control will respond or overcome this condition.
Also when you have a difficult time it is still the best policy
to spin the plane into the ground before you hurt someone.
F. The Stall ... slight or extreme probably has done less for
the modeler than any one factor of success. So if the stall did
not occur in test gliding, chances are that the motor does not have
enough DOWN thrust. Also the initial flight should be of SHORT duration
until the flight characteristics are known. There will be some planes
that will never calm down.. .so hang it up and start a new one.
G. This is a prang ..... Check A thru F for help or get
a bushel basket and whisk-broom and head for the barn.
the engine quits, immediately assess your position with regard to
landing. For the first few flights, until you get the "feel" of
things, try to land in tall grass. Pavement or other lard surfaces
should be tried only after you lave experience! Hopefully the airplane
is upwind, and if it is, circle back until it is about even with
you on the "downwind leg". See figures below (at this time its altitude
may be gauged as well as the glide angle observed). From his point
it is fairly easy to estimate how far downwind to let go before
starting a "base leg" )r turn across the wind. Again observe the
glide ingle, and allow the base leg to use up more altitude, if
necessary, before turning it into your "final approach" directly
into the wind. At this point, concentrate on keeping the wings level
until touch down. You may have to do some walking the first few
times, but gradually you begin to get more accurate in your judgment.
later on, after additional experience, you can learn to play the
glide to land just about where you want to. This will involve tight
turns and quick reflexes, but the methods will become self apparent
as your learning and experience progresses.
happens that a touch down directly into the wind can not be made
due to insufficient altitude for the necessary turns. In this instance,
it is better on keeping the wings level and let it go. It is better
to walk a ways than to "bust up" your airplane.
Study the foregoing four turn and altitude control diagrams.
This will simplify rudder only flying for you.Turns
and Altitude Control
Altitude may be lost quickly whenever desired by applying full
rudder and holding. The airplane will go into a spiral. See Figure
D. You can neutralize the rudder at about 75 to 100 feet of altitude,
but be prepared for a zoom and a stall I As soon as the nose starts
to come up, apply rudder again, MOMENTARILY, until the nose stops
rising. At this point, neutralize the rudder and you are flying
again. Timing is critical, and should be attempted only after you
have had some experience.
A safer way for beginners is to
start circling and to tighten the circle until the airplane loses
altitude. Apply MOMENTARY OPPOSITE rudder to stop the turn and level
the wings again. Anticipate your airplane. When a change in flight
path is signaled, release the command as soon as the airplane starts
to visibly respond. It is far better to do a series of short, inadequate,
(if taken singly) commands than a long, hard blast that must be
counteracted because of over control. As you will see from Figure
A, if you hold in only a very slight turn and your airplane is trimmed
correctly, it will go into a slight climbing turn.
increase the rudder turn, you will do as in Figure B, and that is
be able to maintain or hold your altitude level. This will vary
from airplane to airplane, and no amount of literature can tell
you exactly how much rudder this is, since this varies for each
As shown in Figure C, if you apply hard
rudder and release you will begin an altitude loss spiral. This
is especially helpful if your airplane is gaining excessive altitude
and you want to get it back down toward you.
and hold builds up a spiral dive, and also helps to build up speed.
This speed is essential for any attempts at stunts and maneuvers.
This will be covered in some further detail in one of the next sections.
- 13 -
When your plane has been test flown and adjusted properly for
weather, you will find that you should be able to fly it in winds
of 15 to 20 miles per hour. This will require a decrease in the
wing angle (putting small shims of 1/32 to 1/16 inch at the trailing
edge as one example). The glide will not be much, but remember you
are still flying and you can have fun. In calm weather remove the
It is well always to have a flight plan of some sort
in mind as to what you want the airplane to try to do. This is better
than just flying all over the sky, because you may find yourself
in a tight squeak, and no real brain command on hand.
Stunts and Maneuvers
You can perform stunts
and we will cover some of them briefly. Quite generally, stunts
are a result of building up speed. We've already seen that your
plane will climb if adjusted right, and with a small rudder turn
will still continue to climb. With a slightly increased amount of
rudder turn, your altitude will hold.
If you apply harder
amount of rudder you will begin to lose altitude. If you apply hard
rudder completely and hold, you will go into a spiral dive. This
is used quite effectively to get back down to a flyable altitude
or to gain speed for maneuvers and stunts.
A few of the simple
stunts which may be performed with your rudder-only airplane are:
Roll, split-s, and Wing Over. All these stunts are begun by entering
a one turn spiral dive to build up speed with these maneuvers, effective
use is made of the zoom which normally follows the dive.
ROLL: Spiral dive and release when the airplane is headed into
the wing. When the nose has come up to about 45 degrees above the
horizon, apply rudder and hold. The airplane will make a horizontal
spiral. This may be rough, but it will be recognizable. Neutralize
when the wings are horizontal and the airplane is right side up.
SPLIT-S: Dive and roll as foregoing, except neutralize the
rudder when the airplane is upside down and the wings are level.
The airplane will complete a half loop. When it comes out of the
loop, be sure to kill the zoom that is liable to happen with a turn.
WING OVER: Dive and neutralize. Allow zoom to continue until
the airplane is pointing straight up and almost stalled. Apply hard
rudder and hold until the nose comes back up to horizontal.
All stunts should be performed with at least 200 feet of altitude.
The split-s, very definitely requires altitude, because it uses
up a lot of it before it is completed.
which involve "going over the top" in an inside loop, such as loops,
Immelmann turns, etc., can be performed only by altering the trim.
Considerable experience is needed to fly an airplane trimmed for
these maneuvers, and they are not
recommended for beginners, and we will not go into detail here
as to how to perform them. After you have gained stick experience
and have logged some flight hours, these will more or less become
automatic to you and you will know how your airplane responds to
what commands you give it, and you can probably determine how these
are performed by yourself.
The rudder only story is really
never over, but the foregoing hopefully will give you some idea
as to the fun that it can bring. Take Offs
ROG (rise off ground) is beautiful to behold if done properly.
The surface must be smooth and hard (an asphalt pavement is ideal).
Place the airplane on the surface, pointing it into the wind. When
ready, just release (don't push) the airplane. Correct any turning
tendencies with GENTLE commands. Easy does it! Once enough speed
is reached, the airplane will lift off by itself. Allow it to climb
straight out until sufficient altitude is reached before beginning
- 14 -
1. Join the AMA--among the privileges and benefits of the' Academy
of Model Aeronautics membership, are the fact that liability insurance
is provided for all members. The dues are small--the benefits are
In addition to your insurance coverage, you will receive
"Model Aviation" magazine, which will cover the whole field of model
aircraft flying, and will enable you to read much more about radio
control activities as well.
2. Avoid flying in populated areas. Try to stick to open country.
3. Don't fly over crowds--keep the airplane away from people.
4. Don't stunt at low altitudes.
5. Stay away from power
lines and telephone lines. If your plane should accidentally become
tangled in a power or telephone line, DON'T try to get it back yourself.
Call the telephone or power company. They have the equipment to
do the job safely. As a matter of fact, most of them will prefer
to do it this way rather than risk a law suit over injury.
6. Never fly an airplane that isn't mechanically perfect. Never
attempt to fly an airplane in which the radio response is less than
acceptable. It won't cure its problems in the air if you have any
slight problems on the ground.
7. Don't try to fly in areas
of persistent interference.
The Dick's Dream is an ideal rudder only trainer and sport
- 15 -
* Ni-cds may be used (9.6 v @ 500 ma)
- 16 -
IDEAL FOR THE BEGINNER
The Dick's Dream is the standard for rudder-only trainers.
Many, many people have made the Dick's Dream with Pee Wee .020 and
the Pulse Commander Baby Twin their first successful R/C airplane.
Construction of the die cut parts and the foam wing is very
easy and the step-by-step instructions are written especially for
the beginner. Complete radio installation details are included.
With a Tee Dee .020 and a Baby Twin, a properly trimmed
Dick's Dream is able to rudder-only aerobatics with the best of
Designed by Owen Kampen
also be easily adapted to a sport free flight.
Dick's Dream Kit
FOR THE NOVICE'S FIRST GLIDER
Designed by Owen Kampen
the person who wants to get his feet wet in R/C power assist gliding,
the Ace High is ideal. Foam wing construction overcomes the biggest
problem for the novice.
The Ace High is the perfect companion
to the Pulse Commander Baby Twin or
Standard System. Small two
channel radios such as the Digital Commander may also be used.
Ace High Kit
- 17 -
A Pee Wee .020 power assist rudder only glider designed
expressly for the beginner and' the Pulse Commander Baby or Baby
Twin radio system.
The 34" span foam wing and simple, yet
attractive balsa fuselage make for quick and easy construction.
Gentle flight characteristics are ideal for making the first R/C
Area: 160 sq. in.
Weight: 8 oz. all up
Engine: Pee Wee .020
Radio: Pulse Commander
Baby or Baby Twin Whizard
Span - 40¾ in.
Area - 240 sq.
Length - 30 in.
Power - .049 to .051
Functions - Rudder-Only;
sport airplane for .049-.051 engines and single, two, three channels.
Features sturdy crutch fuselage construction, foam wing, band sawed
parts, formed landing gear, and photo illustrated instructions.
Because the financial and emotional investment is low in
the Whizard, you will find yourself doing more gutsy things flying
this airplane and enjoying it more than ever before. Fun is the
major characteristic of the Whizard.
An often overlooked
attribute of the Whizard is how well it performs as a Rudder-Only
trainer. With an Ace Stomper System, Golden Bee .049, and a 6 x
4 prop it is a docile, stable, easy-to-f1y and build plane perfect
for the beginner.
- 18 -
A Citizens Band radio station license
is required by the FCC for operation of this unit. This license
requires no examination and may be obtained by writing to the Federal
Communications Commission, Washington D.C., 20554, and asking for
a form 505. This form is then filled out and returned with the proper
fee. If you belong to a club that has a license, this is not necessary.
Your Pulse Commander is guaranteed
against defects in parts and workmanship for 90 days from the date
of purchase. The enclosed warranty sheet MUST be filled out and
returned to Ace R/C within a week of the purchase.
fee is required for units needing service during the warranty period.
Please enclose your Money Order or Check. No COD shipments can be
After the warranty period,
Ace R/C will repair any system for a flat fee of $10, restoring
the complete system to original factory specifications and configuration
(for up to three years after purchase). The $10 fee includes all
labor, parts, and return postage. Please enclose your Money Order
or check. No COD's.
RETURN SHIPPING INSTRUCTIONS
ENTIRE set with transmitter, receiver, actuator, batteries, and
charger. Be sure that switches are in the off position. Please have
the batteries fully charged to facilitate service.
Money Order or check for $10 ($2 if under warranty). No COD
shipments can be made.
4. Pack the set in a sturdy carton,
cushioning it well (wadded newspaper is excellent).
to: Ace R/C, Inc.
Box 511 203 W. 19th
Higginsville, Mo. 64037
- 19 -
Here is a schematic for the Transmitter